3 dagen geleden - NWO-institutenorganisatie - Utrecht
In this project you will develop optical metasurfaces that control the coupling and trapping of light in ultrathin high-efficiency solar cells. We will use …
Land degradation is a world wide problem caused by non-sustainable management of farm and grazing lands. Strongly reduced vegetation cover leads to eroded, low quality soils, decreased rainfall infiltration and groundwater recharge, increased runoff loaded ...
Land degradation is a world wide problem caused by non-sustainable management of farm and grazing lands. Strongly reduced vegetation cover leads to eroded, low quality soils, decreased rainfall infiltration and groundwater recharge, increased runoff loaded with sediments and an overall deterioration of the ecosystem services provided by the area affected. Especially in semi-arid areas, land degradation interacts with climate change, each reinforcing the other. As a result, livelihoods of people living in degraded areas, as well as those living downstream -hydrologically and meteorologically, are negatively affected.
Land restauration, or 're-greening', tries to remedy such adverse effects, sometimes explicitly aiming at climate restauration too. Potentially positive climate effects of re-greening, such as reduced temperature extremes, enhanced total rainfall and/or less variable rainfall, have been relatively little quantified. It is not clear if negative climate effects following degradation are simply reversible upon restauration, or not. Also boundary conditions for successful climate restauration need to be identified. The PhD candidate will address such issues in her/his research.
The Water Systems and Global Change group (www.wur.nl/wsg ) of Wageningen University & Research has built up a considerable track record in studying interactions between hydrology, land cover and land use, and climate (change). We do this in the context of deforestation / agricultural expansion, large scale irrigation, urbanisation in both tropical and temperate climates world wide.
As a PhD candidate, you will work on the following research topics (relative weight to be determined based on your interest and qualifications):
The ideal candidate has:
The Water Systems and Global Change Group (WSG) is one of the chair groups in the Environmental Science Group of Wageningen University & Research. WSG aims to create new knowledge to contribute to sustainable water systems in a changing global environment, in order to contribute the provisioning of sufficient, clean and climate-proof water for society and nature. The Water Systems and Global Change group aims to improve the understanding of anthropogenically driven changes in water cycles in relation to interactions between climate-, water-, energy- and agricultural systems. WSG performs integrated assessments of water systems, in which we integrate knowledge on water systems and global change. To this end, we use a variety of models and observations. We combine modelling analyses with participatory approaches. Our water assessments focus on (1) the effect of changing global drivers on water systems, (2) adaptation and (3) mitigation strategies, comprising of novel approaches such as adaptive water management and ecosystem-based adaptation and (4) climate-water services. We thus take an integrated approach across the water, food and energy systems, at multiple spatial and temporal scales.